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Development of Covid-19 Vaccine | Developments | Covid-19 | Wit Biology

                           Development of Covid-19 Vaccine


       It seems like the whole world is holding its breath for the covid-19 vaccine, but you might be wondering how do we even go about making the covid-19 vaccine. 

       There are two main goals in vaccine development first the vaccine needs to be safe to administer to the general population. 

       Second the vaccine needs to be efficacious against the pathogen for instance a virus there are a couple ways to identify that by seeing if it produces a significant immune response to the virus or by seeing if it reduces the chance of getting the disease itself before a candidate vaccine even begins being administered to humans. 


       It goes through extensive animal testing typically using lab mice in this phase researchers are looking for side effects within the mice, which can range from mild skin irritation at the site of injection to death researchers also take blood samples from the mice over the next several days to weeks researchers measure the blood antibody levels of the mice and specifically look for antibodies being produced that would combat the virus a sufficient number of antibodies being produced after the vaccine is administered is a promising result sometimes mice are given the virus to see. 

       If having the vaccine prevents them from getting the disease if there are no significant negative side effects and there's evidence of vaccine efficacy

       The vaccine can move to clinical trials, Clinical trials are broken down in three phases and are designed to measure both the safety of the candidate vaccine and the immune response just like in mice in all of these phases humans are given the candidate vaccine and others are given a placebo with the goal to help make it easier to compare the efficaciousness of the vaccine. 

       Healthy adults are usually chosen for these studies because the goal is to ensure that they are least likely to develop a serious problem from the vaccine and so that if they do develop a health issue it's most likely from the vaccine and not from an underlying condition in phase 1 trials, A small group of individuals on the order of a few dozen are picked to establish a candidate vaccine safety, such as side effects as well as the upper and lower limits for vaccine doses vaccine doses that are too low may not create an efficacious immune response whereas vaccine doses that are too high may cause unwanted side effects, so finding the right dose is really important. 

       Phase 2 trials the primary focus is on the efficacy of a candidate vaccine researchers are trying to answer the question does the vaccine at this dose produce a sufficient immune response in these trials a few hundred individuals who match the demographics of the population. 

       The final vaccine will need to protect are given the vaccine in phase 3 trials, the goal is to get a larger sample size of people usually in the thousands to further prove that the vaccine is efficacious researchers in this phase are looking to see if individuals who received the candidate vaccine contract the disease circulating in the real world questions researchers are trying to answer include did someone who got the candidate vaccine get covid-19 as well as how severe were vaccinated people's symptoms. if they did get covid-19 this phase can take months or years to gather enough information if a candidate vaccine makes it through all three phases of clinical trials and is shown to be both safe and efficacious at combating the virus. Then it is approved for manufacturing and distribution to the population. 


        Today 151 vaccines are in animal testing, 17 are in phase 1, 13 are in phase 2 and 10 vaccines are currently in phase 3 trials. One candidate vaccine has been approved in russia however russia skipped phase 3 testing and its safety and efficaciousness in the broad population is currently unknown. 


        As a quick recap once a candidate vaccine has been created it goes through animal testing to establish its safety and efficacy after that the candidate vaccine enters human trials, where the drug is tested for safety and efficacy in humans with increasingly larger cohort sizes you.... ❤️✌️


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